3: Datalog Queries with XTDB – Mercury Assignment

Introduction

This is the third instalment of the XTDB tutorial, focusing on Datalog queries.

Setup

You need to get XTDB running before you can use it.

{:deps
 {org.clojure/clojure {:mvn/version "1.10.0"}
  org.clojure/tools.deps.alpha
  {:git/url "https://github.com/clojure/tools.deps.alpha.git"
   :sha "f6c080bd0049211021ea59e516d1785b08302515"}
  com.xtdb/xtdb-core {:mvn/version "dev-SNAPSHOT"}} ;; "RELEASE"
  :mvn/repos
  {"snapshots" {:url "https://s01.oss.sonatype.org/content/repositories/snapshots"}}}
Extensible Data Notation
(require '[xtdb.api :as xt])
11.0s

Arrival on Mercury

You come into range of the satellites orbiting Mercury. Your communications panel lights up and you read:

Greetings.

You have reached Mercury, home to the greatest stock market in the Solar System. Your ship has been flagged as a transport vessel for business-related activities.

Please have your flight manifest ready and prepare to land.

- Mercury Commonwealth

The government is asking to see your flight manifest.

Choose your path:

  • You have your manifest:

    • You have permission to land, continue to the spaceport.

  • You do not have your manifest:

    • You do not have permission to land. You can either return to Pluto or continue at your own risk.

Spaceport

You read your XTDB manual as you wait for an available landing pad.

A Datalog query consists of a set of variables and a set of clauses. The result of running a query is a result set (or lazy sequence) of the possible combinations of values that satisfy all of the clauses at the same time. These combinations of values are referred to as "tuples".

The possible values within the result tuples are derived from your database of documents. The documents themselves are represented in the database indexes as "entity–attribute–value" (EAV) facts. For example, a single document {:xt/id :myid, :color "blue", :age 12} is transformed into two facts [[:myid :color "blue"][:myid :age 12]].

In the most basic case, a Datalog query works by searching for "subgraphs" in the database that match the pattern defined by the clauses. The values within these subgraphs are then returned according to the list of return variables requested in the :find vector within the query."

- XTDB manual Read More

You are happy with what you have read, and in anticipation of the assignment, you define the standalone node.

(def node (xt/start-node {}))
6.8s

Assignment

You land on the surface of the tidally locked planet. As you do, the job ticket for this assignment is issued.

Ticket

Task

Find information on products for stock buyers

Company

Interplanetary Buyers & Sellers (IPBS)

Contact

Cosmina Sinnett

Submitted

2115-06-20T10:54:27

Additional information:

We have some new starters in the sales team. They need to be trained on how to query XTDB using Datalog to quickly find the information they need on a product. Traders must have access to up-to-date information when talking to their clients. We would also like you to create a function that can be used for the things we have to look up a lot. I will include example data so they can learn using relevant commodities.

On your way over to the IPBS office, you input the data in the attachment using the easy ingest function you created on Pluto.

(defn easy-ingest
  "Uses XTDB put transaction to add a vector of
  documents to a specified system"
  [node docs]
  (xt/submit-tx node
    (vec (for [doc docs]
              [::xt/put doc])))
  (xt/sync node))
(def data
  [{:xt/id :commodity/Pu
    :common-name "Plutonium"
    :type :element/metal
    :density 19.816
    :radioactive true}
   {:xt/id :commodity/N
    :common-name "Nitrogen"
    :type :element/gas
    :density 1.2506
    :radioactive false}
   {:xt/id :commodity/CH4
    :common-name "Methane"
    :type :molecule/gas
    :density 0.717
    :radioactive false}
   {:xt/id :commodity/Au
    :common-name "Gold"
    :type :element/metal
    :density 19.300
    :radioactive false}
   {:xt/id :commodity/C
    :common-name "Carbon"
    :type :element/non-metal
    :density 2.267
    :radioactive false}
   {:xt/id :commodity/borax
    :common-name "Borax"
    :IUPAC-name "Sodium tetraborate decahydrate"
    :other-names ["Borax decahydrate" "sodium borate" "sodium tetraborate" "disodium tetraborate"]
    :type :mineral/solid
    :appearance "white solid"
    :density 1.73
    :radioactive false}])
(easy-ingest node data)
0.4s

This means you are ready to give them a tutorial when you get there.

Oh good, you’re here.

I have a room reserved and we have five new starters ready and waiting to learn how to query XTDB.

We are in the middle of our double sunrise. The workers take this time to rest, but in half an Earth hour the sun will rise again and the workers will start back.

You can take this time to prepare any training material if you wish.

- Cosmina Sinnett

You have the opportunity to prepare examples for the lesson ahead.

Choose your path:

  • "You use the time wisely and plan some examples":

    • Continue to complete the assignment.

  • "You decide to wing it and see how the tutorial goes":

    • You go and teach the new starters. They are not impressed with your lack of preparation. They learn next to nothing and you realize you made a mistake.

Datalog Tutorial

You put together examples and make notes so you can be confident in your lesson.

Lesson Plan

1. Basic Query

(xt/q (xt/db node)
        '{:find [element]
          :where [[element :type :element/metal]]})
0.2s

This basic query is returning all the elements that are defined as :element/metal. The :find clause tells XTDB the variables you want to return.

In this case, we are returning the :xt/id due to our placement of element.

2. Quoting

(=
 (xt/q (xt/db node)
         '{:find [element]
           :where [[element :type :element/metal]]})
 (xt/q (xt/db node)
         {:find '[element]
          :where '[[element :type :element/metal]]})
 (xt/q (xt/db node)
         (quote
          {:find [element]
           :where [[element :type :element/metal]]})))
0.1s

The vectors given to the clauses should be quoted. How you do it at this stage is arbitrary.

3. Return the name of metal elements.

(xt/q (xt/db node)
        '{:find [name]
          :where [[e :type :element/metal]
                  [e :common-name name]]})
0.1s

To find all the names of the commodities that have a certain property, such as :type, you need to use a combination of clauses. Here we have bound the results of type :element/metal to e. Next, we can use the results bound to e and bind the :common-name of them to name. name is what has been specified to be returned and so our result is the common names of all the elements that are metals.

One way to think of this is that you are filtering to only get the results that satisfy all the clauses.

4. More information.

(xt/q (xt/db node)
        '{:find [name rho]
          :where [[e :density rho]
                  [e :common-name name]]})
0.2s

You can pull out as much data as you want into your result tuples by adding additional variables to the :find clause.

The example above returns the :density and the :common-name values for all entities in XTDB that have values of some kind for both :density and :common-name attributes.

5. Arguments

(xt/q (xt/db node)
      '{:find [name]
        :where [[e :type type]
                [e :common-name name]]
        :in [type]}
      :element/metal)
0.1s

:in can be used to further filter the results. Lets break down what is going down here.

First, we are assigning all :xt/ids that have a :type to e:

e#{[:commodity/Pu] [:commodity/borax] [:commodity/CH4] [:commodity/Au] [:commodity/C] [:commodity/N]}

At the same time, we are assigning all the :types to type:

type#{[:element/gas] [:element/metal] [:element/non-metal] [:mineral/solid] [:molecule/gas]}

Then we assign all the names within e that have a :common-name to name:

name#{["Methane"] ["Carbon"] ["Gold"] ["Plutonium"] ["Nitrogen"] ["Borax"]}

We have specified that we want to get the names out, but not before looking at :in

For :in we have further filtered the results to only show us the names of that have :type :element/metal.

We could have done that before inside the :where clause, but using :in removes the need for hard-coding inside the query clauses.

We pass the value(s) to be used as the third argument to xt/q.

You give your lesson to the new starters when they return. They are a good audience and follow it well.

To check their understanding you set them a task to create a function to aid their daily queries. You are impressed with their efforts.

(defn filter-type
  [type]
  (xt/q (xt/db node)
        '{:find [name]
          :where [[e :common-name name]
                  [e :type type]]
          :in [type]}
        type))
(defn filter-appearance
  [description]
  (xt/q (xt/db node)
        '{:find [name IUPAC]
          :where [[e :common-name name]
                  [e :IUPAC-name IUPAC]
                  [e :appearance appearance]]
          :in [appearance]}
        description))
0.1s
(filter-type :element/metal)
0.1s
(filter-appearance "white solid")
0.1s

When you are finished, Cosmina thanks you and you head back to the spaceport.

Spaceport

You are back at your spaceship. Seeing another light on your communications panel, you realize there is another assignment ready for you.

Congratulations on completing your assignment. You are getting the hang of things now, and we are impressed with your progress.

We would like you to go to Neptune. They have recently lost a lot of data in a flood so they have decided to digitize their entire system and archives. We told them you could do it in such a way that the data is still time ordered as it was with their previous filing system.

Good luck, and don’t forget to update your manifest."

- Helios Banking Inc.

You update your manifest with the latest badge.

(xt/submit-tx
 node
 [[::xt/put
   {:xt/id :manifest
    :pilot-name "Johanna"
    :id/rocket "SB002-sol"
    :id/employee "22910x2"
    :badges ["SETUP" "PUT" "DATALOG-QUERIES"]
    :cargo ["stereo" "gold fish" "slippers" "secret note"]}]])
(xt/sync node)
0.1s

You enter the countdown for liftoff to Neptune. See you soon.

Appendix

This repo is mounted by: Clojure
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